Real-time multiphase flow monitoring proves valuable
This paper presents the application of a method to determine a generalized wellbore-flow profile using predominantly fluid temperature data obtained through a platinum-resistance thermometer (PRT) tool. The method is advantageous, enabling the calculation of multiphase rates independently of spinner data, and it is based almost solely on temperature measurements, which are reliable and available with every production-logging string. The method also enables the identification and quantification of flow behind pipe because temperature is sensitive to both the borehole and formation. The results of this study could be applied as a complement to recorded spinner data and to assess the validity of interpreted flow profiles in complex environments, such as gravel-pack and frac-pack completions. The conclusions presented in this paper also introduce the possibility of real-time flow rate monitoring in multiphase wells with a plethora of producing zones through the combination of permanently installed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and a production logging suite capable of determining a three phase fluid breakdown.
An analytic wellbore-fluid temperature model that depends on mass rate is used to match measured temperature values and to determine expected flow rates between producing intervals. Two case studies are presented to validate the method and to provide clarification during computation. The method was found to yield accurate results in areas of stable flow where steady heat transfer exists. The knowledge of the geothermal gradient was found to be critical, along with the overall heat-transfer coefficient, which should be calibrated with surface rates for optimal rate determination between perforations. Some inaccuracies may exist, primarily because of the dynamic nature of measuring production log temperature, the slight disruption of fluid flow caused by the tool, and the representativeness of the assumptions that must be made. This paper opens the door to real-time multiphase flow monitoring. Real-time multiphase flow monitoring is vital for swift decision making during proper well maintenance; it is specifically valuable in offshore applications with high flow rates and multiple producing wellbores with complex completions.
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Source: SPWLA 57th Annual Logging Symposium, 25-29 June, Reykjavik, Iceland
Authors: Cody Kainer (Halliburton) | Waqar Khan (Halliburton) | Luis F. Quintero (Halliburton) | Sandeep Ramakrishna (Halliburton) | Iván Darío Pinzón (BP) | Adrian Zett (BP)