Tech Paper: Developments in Sandstone HF Acidizing: HF Fluid Compatible with Na or K Brines and Carbonate-Laden Mineralogy for High Temperatures (360°F)

Aminopolycarboxylic acid chelating agent helps with the removal of mineral buildup in sandstone formations

Developments in Sandstone HF Acidizing: HF Fluid Compatible with Na or K Brines and Carbonate-Laden Mineralogy for High Temperatures (360°F) Using hydrofluoric (HF) acid for the removal of clays and silica minerals impairing permeability in sandstone formations requires fluids free of sodium or potassium ions. High temperatures (> 300°F) further limit HF acid use and its effectiveness because of potentially damaging effects to the formation and its corrosivity. This paper discusses laboratory testing of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) fluid containing 1 to 1.5% HF acid and highlights its advantages and differentiating characteristics with respect to previous HF acid fluids.

Core flow testing at 360°F was conducted on outcrops of two types of sandstone representing a heterogeneous (65% quartz and illite/kaolinite with feldspars) and a clean (95% quartz) type of mineralogy. The APCA fluid containing HF acid, which incorporates a modulating agent for the HF acid-secondary reaction on aluminosilicate minerals, was compared to the pure APCA (pH 2) fluid and formic acid. Effluent analysis of the spent fluid was completed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Corrosion inhibition testing was completed for coiled tubing (CT) and carbon steel (NT-95) up to 360°F, employing various classes of inhibitors.

Using an APCA chelating agent in sandstone HF acidizing expands the temperature range of application and the type of minerals that can be exposed to such fluid. High-temperature HF acidizing is also delimited by the type of steel tubing that can be exposed to such fluid, placing significant demands on corrosion control. Laboratory results obtained in this investigation demonstrate that corrosion can be well managed for a fluid having a pH of 2.5 and HF acid concentrations of 1 to 2% from 250 to 275°F and at 300°F with a pH of 4. Testing results show that the APCA/HF fluid, having a pH of 2.5, can effectively be used to treat heterogeneous sandstone of moderate carbonate content at 360°F and is also compatible with a clean sandstone. The APCA/HF fluid stabilizes the most problematic ions in the spent fluid—Al3+, Fe2+/3+, Ca2+, and alumino-fluorides—without the need for acid preflushes and without maintaining highly acidic conditions. Comparison to formic acid and HF acid-free APCA fluid is presented.

Using aminopolycarboxylic acid-type chelants is restricted by the materials commercially available, all of which contain sodium, with one exception, which has ammonium. Hence, HF acidizing has been restricted to ammonium-containing fluids. A differentiating characteristic of the fluid reported here is its ability to sustain Na+ concentrations exceeding 1 M and K+ concentrations in excess of 0.5 M. Furthermore, it is suitable for the treatment of carbonate-laden mineralogy formations up to 360°F.

Click below to view further details and download the technical paper (PDF).




Source: SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, 24-26 February, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA

Authors: Enrique A. Reyes Garcia (Halliburton) |  Alyssa LaBlanc (Halliburton)  |  Aaron Beuterbaugh (Halliburton)  |  Tristen Calabrese (Halliburton)


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